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Book Value Per Share Calculator

Market demand may increase the stock price, which results in a large divergence between the market and book values per share. The Bottom Line Using book value is one way to help establish an opinion on common stock value. Like other approaches, book value examines the equity holders’ portion of the profit pie.

Book Value Per Share Formula

We endeavor to ensure that the information on this site is current and accurate but you should confirm any information with the product or service provider and read the information they can provide. Any opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed here are those of the author’s alone, and have not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any financial institution. As a result, a high P/B ratio would not necessarily be a premium valuation, and conversely, a low P/B ratio would not automatically be a discount valuation.

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When the book value per share is higher than its market value, the stock is undervalued; the stock is overvalued when the book value per share is lesser than its market value. In theory, a low price-to-book-value ratio means you have a cushion against poor performance. Outdated equipment may still add to book value, whereas appreciation in property may not be included.

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At the time Walmart’s 10-K for 2012 came out, the stock was trading in the $61 range, so the P/BVPS multiple at that time was around 2.9 times. The good news is that the number is clearly stated and usually does not need to be adjusted for analytical purposes. As long as the accountants have done a good job (and the company’s executives aren’t crooked) we can use the common equity net financial position measure for our analytical purposes. Equity investors often compare BVPS to the market price of the stock in the form of the market price/BVPS ratio to attribute a measure of relative value to the shares. Keep in mind that book value and BVPS do not consider the future prospects of the firm – they are only snapshots of the common equity claim at any given point in time.

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One must consider that the balance sheet may not reflect with certain accuracy, what would actually occur if a company did sell all of their assets. Shareholders’ equity is the owners’ residual claim in the company after debts have been paid. It is equal to a firm’s total assets minus its total liabilities, which is the net asset value or book value of the company as a whole. If you observe the formula for book value per share, you will notice that the denominator governs the value of the resultant. Book value per share also tells you about whether or not the stock you are purchasing is undervalued. Understanding a financial metric known as Book Value Per Share (BVPS) can give you valuable insights into a company’s financial health.

When computing ROE on a per-share basis, book value per share is also utilized in the calculation. Market value per share is a metric that captures the future status of a company’s stock, while the book value per share is calculated on historical data. Say, for example, that a company invests money in an aggressive marketing campaign, which ends up increasing costs.

  1. If a company has a book value per share that’s higher than its market value per share, it’s an undervalued stock.
  2. When calculating the book value per share of a company, we base the calculation on the common stockholders’ equity, and the preferred stock should be excluded from the value of equity.
  3. In theory, a low price-to-book-value ratio means you have a cushion against poor performance.
  4. Alternatively, another method to increase the BVPS is via share repurchases (i.e. buybacks) from existing shareholders.
  5. The ratio may not serve as a valid valuation basis when comparing companies from different sectors and industries because companies record their assets differently.

What does Book Value Per Share (BVPS) indicate about a company’s equity?

The book value and market value are two measures that can help assess the value of a company by looking at its stocks and future. Using the average number of shares in the formula is essential since the number at the end of the period may factor in a recent buyback or stock issuance, distorting the figure. So, it should only sometimes be compared to other measures, like the market value per share. MVPS is forward-looking with the investment community’s perception of the value of the claims, while BVPS is more on the accounting side. By multiplying the diluted share count of 1.4bn by the corresponding share price for the year, we can calculate the market capitalization for each year.

If the company is going through a period of cyclical losses, it may not have positive trailing earnings or operating cash flows. Therefore, an alternative to the P/E approach may be used to assess the current value of the stock. This is especially applicable when the analyst has low visibility of the company’s future earnings prospects. It can and should be used as a supplement to other valuation approaches such as the PE approach or discounted cash flow approaches. Like other multiple-based approaches, the trend in price/BVPS can be assessed over time or compared to multiples of similar companies to assess relative value. Comparing the book value per share of a company with its market value per share helps investors measure its true value.

If a P/B ratio is less than one, the shares are selling for less than the value of the company’s assets. This means that, in the worst-case scenario of bankruptcy, the company’s assets will be sold off and the investor will still make a profit. BVPS provides clues about a company’s financial health, particularly in terms of the net worth it has generated over time.

On the other hand, if XYZ uses $300,000 of the earnings to reduce liabilities, common equity also increases. The book value per share and the market value per share are some of the tools used to evaluate the value of a company’s stocks. The market value per share represents the current price of a company’s shares, and it is the price that investors are willing to pay for common stocks. The market value is forward-looking and considers a company’s earning ability in future periods. As the company’s expected growth and profitability increase, the market value per share is expected to increase further.

Failing bankruptcy, other investors would ideally see that the book value was worth more than the stock and also buy in, pushing the price up to match the book value. Capital expenditures, depreciation, and economic downturns can impact asset values and, thus, the company’s book value per share. For example, economic downturns cause asset values to go down, which leads to a decline in the BVPS. Nevertheless, investors should look at both and understand what the figures mean before taking a risk and choosing a stock. Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader.

As a company’s potential profitability, or its expected growth rate, increases, the corresponding market value per share will also increase. In simplified terms, it’s also the original value of the common stock issued plus retained earnings, minus dividends and stock buybacks. BVPS is the book value of the company divided by the corporation’s issued and outstanding common shares. If quality assets have been depreciated faster than the drop in their true market value, you’ve found a hidden value that may help hold up the stock price in the future. If assets are being depreciated slower than the drop in market value, then the book value will be above the true value, creating a value trap for investors who only glance at the P/B ratio. A simple calculation dividing the company’s current stock price by its stated book value per share gives you the P/B ratio.

For example, if a company has a total asset balance of $40mm and liabilities of $25mm, then the book value of equity (BVE) is $15mm. As suggested by the name, the “book” value per share calculation begins with finding the necessary balance sheet data from the latest financial report (e.g. 10-K, 10-Q). In fact, the two terms may sound similar – there are, however, certain differences between them.

With increases in a company’s estimated profitability, expected growth, and safety of its business, the market value per share grows higher. Significant differences between the book value per share and the market value per share arise due to the ways in which accounting principles classify certain transactions. In theory, BVPS is the sum that shareholders would receive in the event that the firm was liquidated, all of the tangible assets were sold and all of the liabilities were paid. However, its value lies in the fact that investors use it to gauge whether a stock price is undervalued by comparing it to the firm’s market value per share. If a company’s BVPS is higher than its market value per share, which is its current stock price, then the stock is considered undervalued.

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